Essay

 Essay question. Answer only one of the two following questions:

a) Without the invention, development, and consolidation of the notion of the individual it would not have been possible for citizens’ claims to a right to become human rights. How did the notion of the individual evolve from a historically particularistic experience to become a universal and abstract notion associated with inalienable rights? Which historical events consolidated the notion of the abstract individual? How do politics relate to the consolidation of human rights? Elaborate fully, citing relevant examples.

Or

b) Can human rights be measured? Is it correct to measure them? In turn, what are the main theoretical and methodological challenges from measuring human rights? Elaborate fully, citing relevant examples.