2 – Explain the threats to voting rights and voting access that are posed by the over 400 enacted or proposed measures across the country, in the name of “election integrity” but motivated by unfounded fears of fraud and by lies about the 2020 election. You would need to identify the common threads in these new laws as well as highlight significant concrete examples, and you would need to explain what we know about the 2020 context of voting in a pandemic and the counted, recounted, and certified results. The point of this argument would be to raise awareness and alarm; a small part would point toward solutions.
The final revised version will be an absolute minimum 6 full pages, double-spaced, plus a Works Cited page according to MLA guidelines listing an absolute minimum of 8 sources. Your draft version may be shorter, but you should strive to produce the most complete draft you can so that you can receive the most relevant feedback.
ALL uses of source material, whether quote, paraphrase, summary, or other use of the ideas, the evidence, or the language of the source must be properly cited with internal citations, according to MLA guidelines.
Writing an argument means taking a position and supporting and defending that position as fully as you can. This does NOT mean that you must simply be totally for or against something; figuring out a particular position will be much easier the more you read on an issue and the more you see all of the arguments that other people have already made.
The Argument Essay will be a thorough and detailed development of your view. It will have a strong thesis and everything in the essay will work to support that thesis. In addition to the minimal requirements already noted above, in your argument essay you will do the following:
Present your position in a clear thesis that is not a simple sentenceEffectively balance rational and emotional appeals (logos and pathos)Establish and maintain your own ethos by demonstrating strong knowledge of the subject, by remaining civil to your opposition, and by using appropriate academic language throughoutRely on a balance of academic and highly credible journalistic sourcesPresent important opposition to your view in a fair and responsible way, including using some brief direct quotes to present objectionsInclude concrete examples of individuals directly involved with and affected by the issueOrganize logically and coherently, make clear how each paragraph fits into a careful planEffectively incorporate source material throughout the essay, clearly identify those sources, appropriately summarize, paraphrase, and quote, and make clear how that source material advances your argumentIn most paragraphs, make use of more than one sourceProperly cite all uses of source material in the text with internal citationsInclude a Works Cited page (MLA 8 guidelines) that correctly documents all sources used in the essayWrite sentences that are consistently clear, coherent, and correctObserve conventions of grammar and mechanicsClose the essay with a clear look at the “so what” question—a look at the importance of the issue, its implications for us, or a ‘call to action.’
I will evaluate your essay on the basis of all of the criteria listed above.
Your thesis, and thus your argument in this essay, is an expression of your informed opinion. Based on all of your reading, research, analysis, and reflection on various viewpoints, what do you think?As you can see highlighted in the points listed above, at some point/s in your essay, most likely earlier rather than later, give some space to opposition / objections to your thesis. Doing this earlier means getting past it so that you can then keep readers’ attention on your points.This is a research based argument, and that means that a great majority of the material in the essay will be connected in some way to sources you have read. And that means that internal citations and clear introductions of sources will be frequent; any given page in your essay may have three, four, five, six or more citations. HOWEVER, direct quotes will be limited. A rough guide is that no more than 10% of the words in the essay will be directly quoted from sources. That means your ability to synthesize, summarize, and paraphrase are crucial.This should be apparent, I think, but I’ll be explicit. This is NOT, THIS CANNOT BE a five paragraph essay. You need several supporting points developed in their own paragraphs, you need to address opposition, you need effective opening and closing paragraphs. There is no one answer to “how many paragraphs is that?” But trying to do that in five would be immensely frustrating and actually not possible.I’ll stop there for now. You are likely to have many specific questions; please ask as early as possible in the process. As certain questions become more frequent, I will send messages to the group, so please, please keep checking in regularly.