finance

please answer these questions 
1. What is meant by the term, positive alpha? Negative alpha? How can a firm influence the size of its beta?
2. What are three techniques stockholders can use to motivate managers to maximize their stock’s long-run price?  Should managers focus directly on the stock’s actual market price or its intrinsic value, or are both important? Explain
3. List the major types of financial institutions, and briefly describe the primary function of each.  What are some important differences between mutual funds, Exchange Traded Funds, and hedge funds? How are they similar?
4. An investor has a two-stock portfolio with $25,000 invested in Stock X and $50,000 invested in Stock Y. X’s beta is 1.50, and Y’s beta is 0.60. What is the beta of the investor’s portfolio?
5. Portfolio P consists of two stocks: 50% is invested in Stock A and 50% is invested in Stock B. Stock A has a standard deviation of 25% and a beta of 1.2, and Stock B has a standard deviation of 35% and a beta of 0.80. The correlation between these stocks is 0.4.  What is the standard deviation of Portfolio P?  Less than 30%  More than 30% What is the beta of Portfolio P? Which stock is riskier to a diversified investor?
6. What is meant by perfect positive correlation, perfect negative correlation, and zero correlation?
7. The portfolio manager of Ludwig Company has excess cash that is to be invested for four years. He can purchase four-year Treasury notes that offer a 9 percent yield. Alternatively, he can purchase new 20-year Treasury bonds for $2.9 million that offer a par value of $3 million and an 11 percent coupon rate with annual payments. The manager expects that the required return on these same 20-year bonds will be 12 percent four years from now. What is the forecasted market value of the 20-year bonds in four years? Which investment is expected to provide a higher yield over the four-year period?