gender masculinity and femininity in ancient africa

Using the readings from the unit on ancient Alkebulan,
discuss the ways in which ancient African societies,
conceptualized and practiced the masculine and
feminine principle (i.e. what we now term the “principle
of gender”). Recognizing the vast diversity and
heterogeneity of ancient African societies, what
shared principles and practices (what continuities) can
we distill from this philosophical orientation and
extensive, complex histories, to give us a picture of
the ways in which this principle was expressed
spiritually and socio-politically? What modes of social
organization and cultural belief systems did this
principle yield?
In order to fully respond, address the how the
masculine/feminine principle is conceptualized using
Nah Dove’s article “Defining a Mother-Centered Matrix
to Analyze the Status of Women” and/or Wayne
Chandler’s chapter, “The Principle of Gender” You
may also refer to Dona Marimba Richards quote on
p.570 in Miriam Ma’At-Ka-Re-Monges’ article,
“Reflections of the Role of Female Deities and Queens
in Ancient Kemet,” however, if you choose to do this
you need to refer back to Dove and Chandler, to fully
explain the quote. Additionally, you should pull on the
histories, ideas, and concepts as presented by other
writers in the unit on how various ancient African
societies expressed this idea (e.g. see Ivan Van
Sertima’s Black Women in Antiquity, etc.), as well as
the lectures.