It is not expected that a teacher would rely exclusively on just one of the approaches examined in this unit. Choosing one approach over another is influenced by a number of factors: teacher comfort,

It is not expected that a teacher would rely exclusively on just one of the approaches examined in this unit. Choosing one approach over another is influenced by a number of factors: teacher comfort, number of students, available time, desired outcomes, etc. In your reflection, consider the appropriateness of inquiry-, project-, or problem-based instruction. Which one do you consider to be most effective for your learning environment and instructional goals; why? If you are not currently teaching, which approach do you imagine being most useful to you in your classroom and why?

 Which approach seems more natural to your pedagogy and content area? Is there one approach to which you are most inclined to use in your classroom? Why do you think that might be? Does the approach rely on more cognitive, affective, or psychomotor features? Does the approach seem more like what you experienced when you were a student? Reflect on the numerous characteristics that comprise your selected approach. Why do you think you might be drawn to this specific one? be sure to back up your write-up with practical examples. 


1. Guido. M. (2017, January 19). What is inquiry-based learning: 7 benefits & strategies you need to know. Prodigy.

  • Please read through this web page. Developed in the 1960s, many teachers see inquiry-based learning as a new pedagogy. meaning they have questions about how to use it and if it’s worthwhile. Like problem-based learning, proponents state that letting students investigate solutions to open questions has a range of advantages. But the pedagogy must be shaped by research-backed approaches to reap these advantages. The site provides a thoughtful definition and includes benefits and strategies for implementing inquiry-based learning activities in the classroom.

2. Higgins, S., Xiao, Z., & Katsipataki, M. (2012). The impact of digital technology on learning: A summary for the Education Endowment Foundation.  Education Endowment Foundation.

  • Pages 1-52. The aim of this review is to present a synthesis of the evidence from meta-analysis about the impact of the use of digital technology in schools on children’s attainment, or more widely the impact of digital technology on academic achievement. It is divided up into three main sections. The first sets out an overview of the wider research into the impact of technology on learning to set the context and the rationale for the value of this information. The next section reviews the evidence from meta-analysis and other quantitative syntheses of research into the impact of digital technology. A further section looks at trends in the use of digital technology and learning in the UK and internationally, to provide further context for the recommendations which follow. The purpose of this review is to identify implications for future investment in the use of digital technology for learning in schools.

3. IBL, PBL and PJBL, what’s the difference? (n.d.). Kimberlin Education. 

  • This website provides a brief overview of the three different types of learning models.

4. Inquiry-based learning: An approach to educating and inspiring kids. (2016). Education Development Center. 

  • Pages 1-11. This resource explains some of the key principles of inquiry-based learning and offers step-by-step information on how to create an inquiry-based project. In the traditional framework, teachers come to class with highly structured curricula and activity plans, sometimes referred to as “scope and sequence.” Teachers act as the source of knowledge and as the person who determines which information is important. In contrast, inquiry-based learning projects are driven by students. Instructors act more as coaches, guides, and facilitators who help learners arrive at their “true” questions—the things they really care about. When students choose the questions, they are motivated to learn and they develop a sense of ownership about the project.

5. Introduction to project-based learning. (n. d.).

  • Pages 1-7. Project Based Learning is a teaching method in which students gain knowledge and skills by working for an extended period of time to investigate and respond to an authentic, engaging, and complex question, problem, or challenge. Students work on a project from a week up to a semester that engages them in solving a real-world problem or answering a complex question. They demonstrate their knowledge and skills by developing a public product or presentation for a real audience.

6. Larmer, J. (2015, July 13). Project-based learning vs. problem-based learning vs. X-BL. edutopia.

  • This article discusses the different types of “case” based learning and where they fall under the big umbrella of Inquiry-based Learning. The advantages to using these different learning models are also addressed.

7. Newman, M. J. (2005). Problem-based learning: An introduction and overview of the key features of the approach. Journal Veterinary, 32 (1), 12- 20. 

  • Pages 12-18. This article provides background to teaching approaches founded in problem-based learning. In this particular article, the focus is on the education of veterinarian medicine but is useful for secondary education teachers as well. Problem-based learning has been adopted in educational programs in a variety of disciplines. There is a voluminous literature on the subject, but it often remains unclear just what is being done in the name of problem-based learning, and different accounts highlight different, often contradictory, positions on the key features of the approach. Similarly, despite the many claims made for the advantages of problem-based learning, the evidentiary basis of such claims is often questionable. This article provides an introductory overview of what appear to be the key features of the approach and a brief summary of empirical evidence on its effectiveness.

8. Reimaging the role of technology in education: 2017 National education technology plan update. (2017). Office of Educational Technology. 

  • Pages 28-40: Chapter 2, Teaching with Technology. Educators will be supported by technology that connects them to people, data, content, resources, expertise, and learning experiences that can empower and inspire them to provide more effective teaching for all learners. The article includes descriptions of educator roles and examples of how technology can play an integral part in classroom instruction.