Measuring Risk Culture

We discussed many elements of risk culture and how difficult it can be for an organization to implement changes to risk culture to improve risk handling efficiency and to align the culture to address critical business needs.

Briefly describe what executive leadership for a given organization can do to stimulate a healthy risk culture and to improve overall risk handling performance.  
Does organization leadership need to understand the organizations risk culture, and are they active participants in promoting positive changes to risk culture?  
Can this apply to your personal or school life.  Please explain.